20th Century Architecture in New York (Online Version) - Review Questions

As you watch the video, you can browse by subject using the course outline and timestamps below. As you progress through the units, you can use the below optional (ungraded) questions to help assess your understanding of the material. Please note that these are not the summative assessment questions to be answered at the end of the course. You will also need to complete the summative assessment in order to earn course credit.

0:00: Introduction; Sutton Place Colony

Review: Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons for the creation of the Sutton Place Colony?

1. The women who helped found the colony found it difficult to return to 19th century building styles after their experiences with World War I.

Incorrect. Many New York society women had worked in military hospitals during the first World War. This changed their perspective away from the opulence of earlier New York homes.

2. There was a general feeling that the new century called for a new, more relaxed form of architecture.

Incorrect. There was indeed a general sentiment of social change at the start of the 20th century, with greater freedom of style (including in women’s fashion), which paved the way for changes to New York City neighborhoods.

3. The women who helped found the colony wanted to expand the amount of space they had for their homes.

Correct! This is not the case – in fact, the Sutton Place colony featured relatively small-scale apartments.

13:18: Row House Renovation Movement

Review: Which of the followed was NOT an outcome of the row house renovations movement intended by its patrons and architects?

1. The creation of communal gardens for row house owners.

Incorrect. Communal gardens were indeed formed as part of row house renovations; these gardens were beautiful, but were not accessible to those outside of the owners and their friends.

2. The creation of beautiful and affordable housing for less wealthy residents of the city.

Correct! The row house renovation movement was focused on the movement of upper-class New Yorkers into traditionally lower-class areas of the city rather than improving conditions for the existing residents of those neighborhoods. In fact, the remodeling of these homes for upper-class New Yorkers led to the gentrification of these neighborhoods.

3. The renovation of Greek Revival row house facades to have completely different styles inspired by architecture from around the world.

Incorrect. This kind of façade renovation was an important part of the movement; for example, 139 East 19th Street was renovated to have a stucco, Mediterranean-inspired façade.

40:26: Garden City Movement

Review: Which of the following was a hallmark of the initial tenants of the Garden City movement?

1. That the Garden City would function as a suburb of a major city.

Incorrect. Garden Cities were ideally envisioned to be self-sufficient environments. The ‘garden suburb’ could in many ways be said to be antithetical to the garden city ideal.

2. That Garden Cities should have structured gardens that were clearly separated from homes and civic buildings.

Incorrect. The Garden City Movement actually encouraged the integration of houses with the natural setting.

3. That Garden Cities should emphasize decentralization and communal ownership of land.

Correct! The foundational text Garden Cities of Tomorrow emphasized the importance of self-sufficiency and communal ownership of land. However, this ideal was not generally carried out in communities based on the text.

55:06: Zoning Code

Review: Which of the following buildings was an impetus for the creation of the 1916 Zoning Resolution?

1. 120 Broadway (Equitable Building).

Correct! The scale of this building and lack of setbacks was controversial and was a contributing factor to the creation of the first citywide zoning code in the United States.

2. 26 Broadway.

Incorrect. 26 Broadway was created by Carrère and Hastings following the creation of the 1916 Zoning Resolution, and is an early example of a building built to conform to it.

3. Harvey Wiley Corbett and Hugh Ferriss’s proposed works published in The Metropolis of Tomorrow.

Incorrect. Corbett and Ferriss’s work was highly influential in the design of skyscrapers. However, these works, which were begun after the 1916 Zoning Resolution, were a reaction to it rather than a cause of it.